Dec 19, 2019u00a0u00b7 these are ground to a powder and mixed with specific color and water. vitreous enamel is made by fusing the glass silica from which it is made to the base material. this firing (vitrified) at 1450 degrees f. produces a very hard glossy enamel, which is extremely hard wearing, hygienic and resistant to acid or alkaline attack.
The frit in the ground coat contains smelted-in cobalt and/or nickel oxide as well as other transition metal oxides to catalyse the enamel-steel bonding reactions. during firing of the enamel at between 760 to 895 u00b0c (1,400 to 1,643 u00b0f), iron oxide scale first forms on the steel.
The first step in all types of vitreous enamelling or glazing is the making of the frit, the enamel powder. this involves preparation of the raw materials, smelting and frit handing. after careful cleaning of the metal products (e.g., shot blasting, pickling, degreasing), the enamel may be applied by a number of procedures:
A composition that upon firing, forms a non-stick enamel layer is disclosed. the composition can be applied to a metal substrate to provide a non-stick, durable coating for cooking surfaces. also disclosed are methods of forming enamel layers and corresponding coated substrates. various ground coats and related methods are also described.

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